Financial Markets

Financial Markets

Research

Hester Peirce | Nov 07, 2014
In a new study for the Mercatus Center at George Mason University, scholar Hester Peirce shows that such methods undermine public confidence in the regulatory process and harm regulated industries’ compliance efforts due to uncertain requirements and an ever-changing regulatory landscape.
Jeffrey Rogers Hummel | Sep 16, 2014
Many economists and economic commentators fear that the Federal Reserve does not have an adequate exit strategy from the quantitative easing that took place during the financial crisis. Its bloated balance sheet has allegedly left a looming monetary overhang that the Fed will not be able to manage once the economy returns to normal.
David Beckworth | Jul 10, 2014
Inflation targeting emerged in the early 1990s and soon became the dominant monetary-policy regime. It provided a much-needed nominal anchor that had been missing since the collapse of the Bretton Woods system.
Jason J. Fichtner, Jacob Feldman | Jun 19, 2014
The $69 billion mortgage interest deduction (MID) is often viewed as an element of the tax code that promotes middle-class prosperity. However, 64 percent of the benefits, as measured by effective tax reduction, goes to households earning more than $100,000 per year. The large variation in nominal benefits is one of the reasons why many economists state that the MID is regressive.
James K. Glassman, Hester Peirce | Jun 18, 2014
This policy brief outlines the regulations that give PAs their power and the nature and adverse consequences of that power, and offers suggestions for reforms.
Hester Peirce | May 01, 2014
American International Group, Inc. (AIG), a large insurance company, received a massive bailout during the financial crisis in response to difficulties centered on the company’s multifaceted exposure to residential mortgage-backed securities. The company is back on its feet, albeit in more streamlined form and with a new overseer—the Federal Reserve. This paper focuses on a piece of the AIG story that is rarely told—the role of the company’s securities-lending program in imperiling the company and some of its insurance subsidiaries. The paper argues that regulatory responses to AIG have been inapt. AIG did not need another regulator, but better risk management. The markets would have conveyed that message clearly had regulators not intervened to ensure AIG’s survival. This paper adds the missing piece to the AIG story in an effort to challenge the notion that more regulatory oversight for companies like AIG will prevent future crises.

Testimony & Comments

Hester Peirce, Vera Soliman | Sep 10, 2014
The Bureau initiated its database without due consideration of the problem the Bureau was trying to solve or the costs and benefits of the database. Rather than expanding the database’s potential to cause unintended harm, the Bureau should return to the drawing board.
Jerry Brito, Eli Dourado | Aug 14, 2014
As the Treasury Department’s Financial Crimes Enforcement Network has found, certain virtual currency businesses are money service businesses. Typically such money service businesses engage in money transmission and as a result must acquire a money transmitter license in each state in which they do business.
Hester Peirce | Jul 10, 2014
As the Federal Reserve celebrates one hundred years, reform efforts are timely. Consideration of fundamental questions about the Federal Reserve’s role in the regulatory landscape and in the markets should accompany those efforts.
Hester Peirce | May 21, 2014
The flaws in the Bureau’s design impair its ability to operate effectively for consumers. Although more fundamental reforms are needed, incremental reforms will help the Bureau to set appropriate priorities and seek relevant comments before acting. Making the agency more accountable, more transparent, and more focused will also make it more effective at ensuring that the financial system is serving the needs of consumers.
Lawrence H. White | Mar 12, 2014
So long as monetary policy is conducted in a discretionary manner, it is important to maintain the independent input of the Reserve Bank presidents on the FOMC. The Reserve Banks should therefore not become mere outposts of the Federal Reserve Board in order to eliminate commercial bankers’ representation on their boards of directors. A better way to remove the potential for conflicts of interest is to require the Federal Reserve System to leave the formation of fiscal and credit-allocation policies to Congress and their execution to the US Treasury.
Holly A. Bell | Dec 13, 2013
Enabling traders and exchanges to continue to work with regulators in a cooperative environment that recognizes the significant market incentives shared by all stakeholders to ensure trading system and market integrity is the best approach as we transition to technology-based markets.

Research Summaries & Toolkits

Speeches & Presentations

Expert Commentary

Nov 24, 2014

Bank overdraft protection has come under close scrutiny from the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. This summer, several researchers at the CFPB released a study that provides information about the patterns of overdraft protection use by consumers at several large banks, focusing particularly on use by the small category of consumers who use overdraft protection regularly.
Nov 19, 2014

Regulators are not looking forward to heightened congressional oversight of their activities, but the new Congress offers them something to offset the pain. Unencumbered by having voted for Dodd-Frank, the incoming Congress can jettison unnecessary statutory mandates so that agencies can get back to their core missions.
Nov 17, 2014

Large markets for standardized goods tend to be impersonal. The market's ability to function depends more on the quantity and quality of goods for sale than on who buys the goods. This applies to markets for financial assets too — and it's important to keep in mind when weighing the potential effects of the current volume of U.S. Treasury debt against the impact of the Federal Reserve's decision to end quantitative easing.
Nov 10, 2014

The CFTC is by no means alone in its departure from good rule-making practices, but its frequent use of backdoor rule-making in recent years has raised eyebrows from the agency's commissioners and members of the public.
Nov 05, 2014

Regulatory attempts to anticipate whether investors and consumers will benefit from a particular product or service are a waste of resources. Markets are better laboratories than bureaucratic backrooms. Financial regulators have a commendable desire to protect the American public, but blocking people's access to potentially useful financial innovations is not the way to do it.
Oct 22, 2014

Mr. Dudley is correct that "a good culture cannot simply be mandated by regulation or imposed by supervision." A bad culture, however, can be cultivated by regulators that micromanage firms and offer banks cover when they make mistakes.

Charts

This chart depicts two data series from RegData 2.0—word counts and restriction counts. Each series contains aggregated statistics for all federal regulatory agencies that were required to engage in rulemaking by the Dodd-Frank Act of 2010.

Experts

Tyler Cowen is Holbert L. Harris Chair of Economics at George Mason University and serves as chairman and general director of the Mercatus Center at George Mason University. With colleague Alex Tabarrok, Cowen is coauthor of the popular economics blog Marginal Revolution and cofounder of the online educational platform Marginal Revolution University.
Garett Jones is a senior scholar and BB&T Professor for the Study of Capitalism at the Mercatus Center and an associate professor of economics at George Mason University. He specializes in macroeconomics, monetary economics, and the microfoundations of economic growth.
Arnold Kling is a Mercatus Center–affiliated senior scholar at George Mason University and a member of the Financial Markets Working Group. He specializes in housing-finance policy, financial institutions, macroeconomics, and the inside workings of America’s federal financial institutions. He also is an adjunct scholar at the Cato Institute in Washington, DC.
Stephen Matteo Miller is a senior research fellow at the Mercatus Center.
Hester Peirce is a senior research fellow at the Mercatus Center at George Mason University and program director for the Financial Markets Working Group. Her primary research interests relate to the regulation of the financial markets.

Podcasts

Hester Peirce | September 10, 2014
Hester Peirce Discusses Her Public Interest Comment on the CFPB’s Proposal to Expand Its Consumer Complaint Database

Upcoming Events

Recent Events

Join the Cato Institute and the Mercatus Center at George Mason University for a two-day conference July 16 and 17 exploring policies to improve financial markets in a post-Dodd-Frank world.

Books

Jerry Brito, Andrea Castillo | Jan 23, 2014
Como la primera moneda digital descentralizada del mundo, Bitcoin tiene el potencial de revolucionar los sistemas de pago en línea de una manera que beneficia a los consumidores y las empresas. En lugar de utilizar un intermediario, como PayPal, o entregar información de tarjeta de crédito a un tercer partido para su verificación—ya que los dos incluyen cargos de transacción y otras restricciones— Bitcoin permite que los individuos paguen directamente entre sí para bienes o servicios.

Media Clippings

Stephen Matteo Miller | Nov 03, 2014
This excerpt originally appeared in the Washington Examiner.
Todd Zywicki | Oct 20, 2014
This excerpt originally appeared in the Washington Examiner.
Jason J. Fichtner | Jul 24, 2014
This excerpt originally appeared in FOX Business.
Jason J. Fichtner | Jul 17, 2014
This excerpt originally appeared in FOX Business.
Hester Peirce | Feb 12, 2014
Hester Peirce quoted at Reuters.
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